Kidney Disease Disparities

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Compared to Whites, minority groups have a higher risk of developing ESRD:

  • Blacks have 4 times the risk
  • Native Americans have 2 times the risk
  • Hispanics have 2 times the risk
  • Asians have 1.6 times the risk

Source: Nicholas SB, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Norris KC. Racial disparities in kidney disease outcomes. Semin Nephrol. 2013;33(5):409-415.


There are disparities between blacks and whites at every step along the transplant process.
Blacks are less likely to:

  • be identified as transplant candidates
  • be referred for a transplant evaluation
  • complete the evaluation
  • be placed on the waiting list
  • Black patients wait longer on the transplant list
  • Blacks are more likely to receive expanded criteria donor kidneys
  • Blacks are less likely to receive a kidney from a living donor
  • Black patients have poorer graft survival outcomes than white patients

Source: Norton et al., 2016 2 Norton JM, Moxey-Mims MM, Eggers PW, et al. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;27(9):2576-2595.


Low socioeconomic status is strongly associated with kidney disease and ESRD. Those with a low socioeconomic status are more likely to have kidney disease and ESRD.

Source: Nicholas et al., 2015 3 Nicholas SB, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Norris KC. Socioeconomic disparities in chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2015;22(1):6-15.